Pro Tip

Concrete Patching: How to Bond to Existing Concrete for Best Results

Concrete is marvelous stuff but in time it will deteriorate. When it does, you either have to patch it or replace it. Assuming that it is structurally sound, the least expensive alternative is to patch it. However, patching it requires some attention to detail or your patch will not last.

Fact: Fresh wet concrete does not normally bond well to existing dry concrete.

Do you remember elementary school where one of the subjects on which you were graded was “plays well with others”? Concrete would have gotten an F. There is nothing in basic portland cement that will act as a bonding agent. Portland cement concrete works well in mass and provides great compressive strength but not bond.

When patching existing concrete, here’s how to achieve a strong and lasting bond between the new and old concrete.

1. Repair or replace? Determine if the concrete is structurally sound.

If a sidewalk has either heaved or dropped at almost every joint, repairing it will not provide a long-term solution. The slabs are likely still moving. If the slab has so much sand and gravel on the surface that despite sweeping and sweeping and squirting and squirting it just keeps coming back, don’t waste your time on repairs. If it has multiple cracks that run so deep that they appear to run through the slab, a repair would only be temporary. The solution to all of these problems involves a jackhammer and several bags of Sakrete concrete mix. Since this discussion is about best way to bond concrete, we will assume that your slab is good.

2. Prepare the surface.

There are a variety of Sakrete concrete repair products available to fix concrete that has begun to deteriorate. No matter which product you use, the process begins with good surface preparation. All loose sand, gravel, dirt, leaves etc. must be removed. This can typically be done with a garden hose and a good nozzle. Tough areas may require a pressure washer or mechanical abrasion. The two toughest areas to cover are those with oil and tree sap. Both of these will work their way down into the concrete. Simply washing the surface isn’t sufficient. If the stains do not run too deep, you can chip away the concrete using a hammer and chisel. Don’t forget the goggles (not just glasses) as this process will throw concrete all over the place. Also, keep your thumb out of the way. If the spots are too large or too deep for this to be practical, you may need a sealer to cover the stains before patching.

Note: Concrete simply will not bond to all substances. Paint, oil, glue from old flooring tiles are just a few. You must mechanically remove these materials if you want the job to last.

3. Choose a bonding method

There are two basic methods for bonding a portland cement based product to existing concrete: 1) mechanically and 2) chemically.

Mechanical bonding: Let’s discuss the mechanical method first since it is really used in both approaches. The most effective way to ensure a really good bond is with a scratch coat. This is simply a very wet coat made up by mixing the repair product with water. Mix up a small amount of the repair material to a soupy consistency. You don’t need to measure the water—just turn the stuff into slop. Then, using a gloved hand or a rag, smear the material onto the area to be patched. Just think finger painting from kindergarten. The technique is about the same. Apply pressure to ensure that as much as possible is shoved into the nooks and crannies. You only need a thin coat. It is not necessary for this scratch coat to dry. By the time you get the repair material mixed it will be ready. Then mix up additional repair material to the proper consistency and apply over this thin scratch coat.

Chemical bonding: The chemical approach involves mixing up a liquid bonding agent that helps bond new concrete products to old.

Make sure to use concrete products that are compatible with a liquid bonding agent.

Products like Sakrete Sand Mix and Sakrete Fast Set Cement Patcher will work well with a liquid chemical bonding agent such as Sakrete Bonder & Fortifier.

Important: DO NOT USE products like Sakrete Top ‘N Bond and Sakrete Flo-Coat with a liquid bonding agent. These products already contain polymers to aid bonding with portland cement and should never be used with a separate liquid bonding agent.

When using a liquid bonding agent, paint the bonder onto the existing concrete and allow it to dry until it is tacky. This usually takes only a few minutes. Then apply the repair material. The most effective way to ensure that the bonding agent gets into the existing concrete is to apply it directly using a brush or rag. It can be sprayed if you happen to have a sprayer. Although the directions say that you can use it as part of the mix water, direct application works better.

4. Wet the surface (if necessary)

If you are doing a large area and a scratch coat isn’t practical, you will need to spray the surface with water before you apply the repair material. On a warm day, the existing concrete surface will be hot enough to suck the water out of the repair material. In addition, some concretes are quite porous and will rob water from your repair material. If too much water is lost into the old concrete there will not be enough water to hydrate all of the cement particles and a lower strength material will be the result.

5. Check your work

Once the job is complete, you can do a quick check to see if the bond was successful. Wait at least 24 hours and then tap “gently” on the patch using a hammer or some other dull object and listen for a hollow echoing sound. If you just get a dull thud, then the material has bonded well. If you get a hollow sound, the material has not bonded and will crack in time. Which means it is back to the beginning of today’s topic. Here is hoping your concrete work comes across as a dull thud rather than a hollow endeavor.

For more information on where to buy these products, visit here.

Comments (87)

Rick Thompson says:

Do Pro-Mix products require a bonding agent?

Sakrete says:

No, all Pro-Mix products are heavily polymer-modified and don’t require a bonding agent. Using a bonding agent can actually act as a bond breaker!

Abdyrahman says:

On what time or number of days between old and new concrete to use bonding agent for bonding old and new concrete? I wanna to know the gap between old and new concrete to use bonding aget.
Abdurahman Esmael (Material Engineer)

Sakrete says:

You need to wait at least 28 days before laying anything on top of new concrete.

Robert cortese says:

I’m resurfacing ny cement driveway with Portland cement that hat has a bonding glue added I got a few areas that the mixture not ad herring to the driveway. I’m assuming because I had used an cement paint on the driveway 2 years ago. I had power washed it twice with a pre sealer twice but the paint seems still shows thru. Help

Sakrete says:

Sounds like you’ve got the right diagnosis, Robert. Any old paint still hanging on is going to be a guaranteed bond breaker. You might also have some oil, etc. that’s seeped into the surface, which will also inhibit the bond. Consider some additional mechanical abrasion to make sure you’re down to 100% clean concrete!

Give us a call at 866-SAKRETE if you’d like to dig into this a bit more.

Roy Putnam says:

Thank you for all the info.
What is a good concrete sealer or gray paint for steps and risers?

Sakrete says:

Hey, that’s what we’re here for!

As far as a good sealer goes, give our Concrete & Paver Sealer a try.

Mark says:

Can you mix cement all with mortar mix?

Sakrete says:

Assuming you’re talking about Rapid Set Cement All? We can’t recommend that, unfortunately. Might work just fine, but we’ve never tested it!

Jay says:

This statement is incorrect.
When using a liquid bonding agent, paint the bonder onto the existing concrete and allow it to dry until it is tacky. This usually takes only a few minutes. Then apply the repair material. After the bonder has become tacky, apply a scratch coat as described above and then apply the repair material.

Sakrete says:

Thanks, Jay – we’ll correct!

Thomas Brooks says:

4 days ago, poured a small new slab for stairs landing (6’x6’x5″ deep). Used Sakrete High-Strength Concrete. Upon removing lumber form, discovered several small voids around perimeter. I have both: Sakrete High Strength Ckncrets OR Sakrete Mortor Stucco type S avaliable. Which is best for filling voids? Do I need liquid bonder agent?

Sakrete says:

Thomas, we’d actually recommend going with Top ‘N Bond or some other type of repair material for this application!

John Klem says:

I want to use mortar mix over cured but new concrete because my wife wants it 2 inches higher. Will it be a problem?

Sakrete says:

John, quick word of caution – mortar mix isn’t structural, so we wouldn’t recommend this application. However, if you want to go 2″, any standard concrete will work! Just make sure to do some heavy surface prep AND use bonding agent to give your new pour the best-possible chance of achieving a strong bond.

David Billerm says:

I’m patching a hole in my foundation
I plan to rinse the wall, wipe off loose stuff, then apply the bonding agent, mixe the quick Crete patch.
Should that work?

Sakrete says:

David, you nailed it! That’s the process.

David Biller says:

I need to patch a hole in my foundation and after I wet the opening, apply bonding agent, will that work.

Sakrete says:

David, important note: it’s either bonding agent OR water – don’t use both!

W. Keith Brassel says:

What is the cure time for the brown coat

Sakrete says:

That’s going to vary a bit depending on conditions…but rule of thumb? Let it cure for 48 hours before re-coating.

Jimmy says:

2 questions
1-if a oily spot does not come up completely what type of sealer is recommended
2- after using the flow Crete when should you seal the surface

Sakrete says:

Jimmy, you should always wait the full 28 days before sealing any new concrete. However, we always recommend putting down Concrete Cure ‘N Seal immediately after pouring to help with the curing process. It’s especially valuable for these thin “topping” pours that can be prone to cracking if not treated carefully.

That said, Cure ‘N Seal is the go-to for both steps.

Gary Chase says:

What is the best product to bond concrete to asphalt

Sakrete says:

Gary, don’t have great advice for you there…concrete and asphalt are not typically buddies from a bond strength perspective!

Greg says:

If applied properly, what is the strength (psi) of the bond? I am looking for a high-strength bond, so what product would you recommend and what is the strength of the bond assuming 6000 psi concrete strength on both sides of the bond?

Sakrete says:

Greg, all of our repair mixes are rated for 5000 psi, which is SIGNIFICANTLY stronger than almost all concrete that you’d typically have in the wild.

If you want something stronger, Pro-Mix All-Purpose Cement Mix is rated for 9000 psi – definite overkill!

Bart LaBram says:

I need to fill a low area on my drive. I want to feather from 2” down to 1/16 a small section about 2’ wide by 6’. Which secrete material and bonding agent do you recommend

Sakrete says:

Bart, the BEST option would be Pro-Mix All-Purpose Cement Mix. Extremely rapid-setting, no bonding agent required and feathers down beautifully. Great, great mix.

We have also seen some luck with using Fast Setting Cement Patcher, polymer modified with Bonder & Fortifier. While the 1/16″ feather isn’t technically in spec, we have seen applications where the bonding agent adds enough strength to allow you to get down pretty darn thin.

That said, Pro-Mix all the way if you can get it in your area!

Russ Capellari says:

1 of the slabs of my driveway has cracked and 1 side is about a 1/4-3/8 in. Difference in height. I have cleaned out the crack and caulked but would like to blend one into the other to try to get to an original look. The concrete has stoped heaving. What product do you recommend for this repair? I would like to feather the edges to try and get a look better than the caulked crack. Would I have to dig out the caulk or will your product, that I hope you carry to make this repair, will adhere to the concrete and caulk? I’ve tried to grind one edge of the crack to blend in with the other with my 4 inch grinder but I’m not getting any where. I’m sure I could rent a commercial grinder but I would rather patch if possible. Thanks for any info

Sakrete says:

Russ, sounds like Top ‘N Bond would be the PERFECT mix to build a nice, smooth transition between those heaved areas.

Peggy Miller says:

we have a 50 year old concrete slab that we have in-trusted a self employed company to ‘dye’ it for us. I stripped the top layer and failed to place the moisture barrier on top before re-creating the top colored surface. Now we have bubbled-powdered-caked areas through-out our floor which was to be our rec.hall for our RV Park close to $7,000. in loss. how Can I remedy this situation? do I use your Bonding method to try to stop moisture seeping through the surface.

Sakrete says:

Peggy, sorry to hear about that! Hate to hear about bad jobs like this one.

Sounds like a bit of a complex remedy, so it’d be best to give our team a call at 866-SAKRETE to discuss in detail! If you have any photos handy, those are always helpful too.

John Teague says:

What is the best method to patch and match 20 year old joints between slate in a walkway? The joints go deep and some are cracked all are dark with age. I can use hammer and chisel to clean up where broken. Thank you.

Sakrete says:

John, that depends on what the original joints are made out of. Assuming it’s probably some sort of a mortar, but they could also be a Sand Mix Concrete or even just straight Portland cement!

Send us some photos on social, at or give us a call at 866-SAKRETE and we’ll dig into this one together.

Ronnie Standridge says:

Does this bonding mixture react with galvanized steel metal studs?

Sakrete says:

Ronnie, what type of application are you looking at? Bonder & Fortifier is definitely designed to be non-reactive, but we’d like to understand your project a bit more before making a definitive statement. Give us a call at 866-SAKRETE and let’s talk specifics!

Dennis Rasco says:

Repairing holes in cement block. Plan to use darkened Pro Mix Concrete (red striped bad).

1). Do I need to add a binding agent to the mix, or moisten the concrete with a bonding agent, or is water moistening sufficient?
2) Do I need to add anchor screws studs like tapcon, to aide in the repair?

Thank you,

D. R

Sakrete says:

Dennis, great choice of mix!

No bonding agent required for Red Stripe – just water moisten (SSD) and you’re good to go

Tapcons might be helpful if you’ve got a BIG hole, but typically not necessary.

If you’ve got any photos, shoot ’em our way and we can give you some better advice.

Kyle S says:

Hi, question about the bonding coat?!

For best practice, do you require the bonding coat on the existing “concrete” to be dry or a bit wet before applying the bonder on top of it? or is it better to be dry and make it tacky before applying the new concrete on top of it.

Also can this product be added to the cement mix also and coat the existing concrete for more strength?

Looking for best application of the bonding material.


Sakrete says:

Good questions!

You do want to allow the bonding coat to dry A BIT before application. Depending on the product you’re using, you have 12 – 24 hours to top coat before the bonder must be reapplied. If you let it dry to “tacky,” you’re perfect.

You can also add bonding agents directly to the mix, absolutely.

Check out the TDS Reports before starting your project – they’ll have everything you need to know. If you have any other questions, give our team a call at 866-SAKRETE!

Joseph says:

Thank you for the advice
I will shop for sakrete bonder

Maranda Dean says:

Do you use the bonding agent as the liquid to mix with your concrete instead of water?

Sakrete says:

Maranda, you can use bonding agent as a replacement for water, but that’s typically not necessary. We do like a 50% bonding agent to 50% water ratio when creating an overlay with Sand Mix, but typically just brushing the bonding agent onto the surface as a prep step will be more than sufficient.

Duke’s Metal Industries says:

Concrete patching can be a daunting task, but your article breaks it down beautifully. Understanding the condition of the concrete is the first step, and you provide valuable insights to help readers make an informed decision. The emphasis on thorough surface preparation and removal of substances that hinder bonding is essential. I particularly liked the explanation of the mechanical bonding method with the scratch coat technique. It’s great to have options like chemical bonding as well. I have also found this resource useful and it related to what you are mentioning.

Dean Schneider says:

Hello! I’m repairing my front steps. They are a slate veneer over (slate veneer over mortar?). Yikes!
In a step by step process, I have removed the slate and rotary hammered out the mortar. Since I have a old mortar layer thickness and an under slate slate layer thickness, I have decided to ‘pour’ a new cement under layer. I’ve used Sakrete sand mix as my thicknesses are not expected to be greater than 2 inches. So far so good. Question: How long do I wait before applying the slate with a thinset?

Sakrete says:

Dean, sounds like you’re on the right track. Interesting setup you’ve got on your hands there!

Unfortunately we don’t have a great answer for you on the wait time before thinset – you’re going to want to refer to that manufacturer’s guidelines on applying over fresh concrete.

28 days would be MORE than sufficient, but that’s likely overkill.

Don says:

I have a deck footing that the post has rotted out of. The 42″ deep footing is fine, I just want to fill the 14″ deep 3.75″x3.75″ hole with cement, mound the cement on top of the footing, and use an anchor bolt and bottom bracket for the new replacement post to keep the bottom of the post above grade.

Which type of cement would work best? What type of bonding?

Sakrete says:

So this is a slightly interesting application. You’d think that standard concrete would be the best bet, but concrete shrinks slightly when it dries, which would make for an unstable bracket.

You’re going to want to use a non-shrink material like Anchor Cement to fill that void.

David says:

How soon can I patch small aggregate voids that appear on the edges after pulling the forms? Can it be done within 24-48 hours after pouring of do I have to wait the full 28 days to fully cure. Do they make a special product to apply in that 24-48 hour window?

sa says:

Patching with something like Top ‘N Bond within 24 – 48 hours should actually be just fine.

Renee says:

I’m repairing the edges of a fountain. The edges are crumbling. I live in Florida and it rains every afternoon. Can I put my scratch coat on damp fountain edges?

Sakrete says:

Absolutely – and it will actually be best to apply to a slightly damp surface. Just protect the job with a tarp before it rains!

Ken Miller says:

I am doing a pour, where for access and size reasons, the pour will take all day, and might span over night. The pour will involve me mixing many small batches and pouring into the forms.

What is the maximum time I can wait between one batch and the next, and still have a good bond between batches, as if they were poured continuously?

If I must wait longer, are there any suggested bonding agents or retarding agents to facilitate a good bond? The maximum delay would be between 12 and 24 hours.

Thank you,

Sakrete says:

Lots of variables here, but your max wait time is likely no more than 15 – 30 minutes. Would it be possible to break this pour up into smaller sections?

John A says:

I recently poured a number of 14″ x 3 ft deep deck footings. Once the concrete set I noticed that the center area on a few of the the footings are 1/4 to 3/8″ shallower than the outside which will likely result in water collecting where I install wedge anchors which is undesirable. Can you recommend a concrete produce and bonding agent to fill the shallow area of the footing ? I live in the northeast so freeze and thaw cycles are a consideration. Thanks

Sakrete says:

John, good on you for the attention to detail. A touch of Top N Bond will let you patch that right up! This mix is available in 10# buckets, so it’ll be a cheap, quick and easy fix for you.

Jemine Funk says:

Hi I have a new pour that is 1 month old. Contractor left a low spot that must be filled for water to drain properly. Will a bonding agent applied then psi6000 be acceptable? Also does the surface need to be wet before applying the binding agent? TIA

Sakrete says:

Yessir – that sounds like a solid plan. Just make sure to use either bonding agent OR water – never both! Also, double-check the depth range of the mix you’re talking about to make sure it’s applicable for the job.

Eric Straub says:

Thank you for having a real writer pen the previous instructions.

Richard Meijer says:

I need to resurface a concrete seawall in Florida. This is to repair cracks and chips, and also to provide protection in a saltwater environment. What products do you have for this purpose?

Sakrete says:

Depending on the depth of the repair, you’re either looking at Fast Setting Cement Patcher (from 1/4″ – 2″ depth) or Top ‘N Bond (from 0″ – 1/2″).

Even better would be Pro-Mix All-Purpose Cement Mix (from 0″ – 4″) so you can get the entire wall done FAST.

Alfred J. says:

Thanks for the helpful articles!
I need to problem-solve a situation in my garage, where there is a gap that the builder left under the doorstep area, which leads into the house. I think he meant to put a single step there but forgot. Now there is a concrete slab to the left and right of this gap (and this slab sticks out about 5 inches from the wall where it meets the floor into the garage), plus the concrete floor of the garage. There is nothing on the top and the side facing the garage. The problem area is the back part of this gap, where I see vapour barrier plastic sheeting over wood joists leading to the basement area utility room.
Any suggestions about how to approach this situation? I am puzzling over how to create a form and remove it from the back part of this gap, assuming I cannot just lay concrete against the vapour barrier. And I suppose that thoroughly cleaning the concrete slab sides and garage floor surfaces will allow new concrete to bond to that? Do I need to install rebar?
Thanks for your advice!

Sakrete says:

So here’s your good news – absolutely no reason you can’t pour directly up to the vapor barrier, though we’d recommend laying down a piece of expansion joint to allow movement. Problem one solved.

Regarding ensuring a good bond to the existing slabs, a thorough cleaning is a great start, but since this is likely a hard-troweled (smooth) surface on the floor, you’d be better off doing a bit of grinding to roughen up the surface to ensure a good bond. Even better would be cutting into the existing slab…but that might be overkill for this application.

Ilene says:

25 years ago we poured by hand a foundation for a shed. I did not realize that the water was draining toward the vertical concrete foundation in one location. There is spalling for about 4 feet along the exterior foundation wall up to 1 foot wide. Deepest spalling is 1.5 inches in a few places. Dug it out, scrapped out the punky concrete, washed, let dry 2 days. I am going to use top’n bond self bonding cement built up in layers with 24 hours between layers. No liquid bonding first but i will mix a slightly thin mix of top’n bond for first layer to make sure it gets into the recesses. Does that make sense?

Sakrete says:

Makes PERFECT sense – that’s textbook. Give us a call at 866-SAKRETE if you run into any questions along the way!

Tim says:

Very helpful. Definitions and explanations are easily understood for the everyday do it yourself small repair person as myself.

Wayne says:

After I apply the bonding agent and it drys, should I dampen the surface again before applying the the concrete or is the bonding agent all that is needed?

Sakrete says:

Actually, you should NEVER mix bonding agent and water – that’ll create a bond breaker. The most important thing to remember with concrete prep is to choose ONE method and stick with it the whole way through the job.

Jeff says:

I’m wanting to repair a low spot on my front porch where water stands after a rain. Which one of your products do you recommend? My front porch is a concrete slab. Thanks

Sakrete says:

Sounds like a job for Top ‘N Bond!

We’ve got some great Pro Tips videos on how to use this mix for this exact problem, but don’t hesitate to give the Tech Team a call at 866-SAKRETE to discuss.

Palm beach Epoxy says:

“I’m impressed with the valuable insights shared in this article about concrete patching! The step-by-step guide and practical tips provided a clear understanding of the process. The detailed explanations make it seem much less daunting. Thanks to Sakrete for this informative resource, it’s been a great help for my DIY project!”

Sakrete says:

Glad we could help!

Larry Schweigert says:

I have a mono-pour slab-heat garage floor which has settled on one side enough to overcome the slope the contractor was supposed to put in (I suspect not?) that half the water from my wife’s car from snow and rain runs to the wall. This is along about half of the 40′ wall. My pickup on the other side has no problem. The other half runs to a floor-center drain. Wall sill is AWW on level with concrete. The floor is sealed with epoxy paint, and has some thin cracks in it.

I would like to raise the perimeter surface enough (1/2 inch or more) to keep water at least 2 feet from the wall to keep it out from under stored materials and easy to move to the drain or vacuum up.

is this even feasible? and your recommendations, if any

Sakrete says:

Larry, very viable using something like Top ‘N Bond or Pro-Mix All-Purpose Cement Mix – you’re just going to have to do some pretty heavy grinding work to remove the epoxy flooring material as well as profiling the underlying concrete.

Once you’ve got the surface prep done, this will be simple!

Chuck says:

I am trying to fix a 26X13 old patio slab in S Florida. It has cracks and is uneven in spots up to 2 inches. Cracks that are thin and some spots wide. Also has a corner cracked pretty good. Suggestions on which product or products and any techniques.

Sakrete says:

Chuck, you’ve got some options! The most cost-effective approach would be to pour a “cap” using polymer-modified Sand Mix as outlined in this Pro Tips video.

You could also individually address those cracks and uneven spots and then apply a thin layer of Flo-Coat over the entire slab…however, it sounds like a complete cap would probably be the ideal solution.

Goodyear Concrete says:

Sakrete’s insightful blog on concrete patching serves as a valuable resource for both seasoned professionals and DIY enthusiasts, offering practical guidance and expert tips to tackle repairs with confidence and precision, ensuring long-lasting results that stand the test of time. Whether it’s addressing small cracks or larger surface imperfections, this resource equips individuals with the knowledge and techniques needed to enhance the durability and aesthetic appeal of their projects, turning them into proud expressions of craftsmanship.

Jimpitt says:

Can I pour .5” sand mix as leveling under a new vanilla flooring

Sakrete says:

Absolutely. There are also lower-cost products like Sakrete Floor Mud that will work great for this application. However, if Sand Mix is what you’ve got, use it!


I am structural engineer. One of our project requiring 1″ topping slab. Do you have a special product might fit our purpose and please shar with me how to use the product

Sakrete says:

Idris, you’ve got some options! The most cost-effective approach would be to pour a “cap” using polymer-modified Sand Mix as outlined in this Pro Tips video.

John Wood says:

Incredibly informative piece on concrete patching! Your detailed guide on how to achieve the best results by bonding to existing concrete is a game-changer. The step-by-step insights provide a valuable resource for anyone tackling concrete patching projects. The emphasis on proper bonding techniques not only ensures durability but also elevates the overall quality of the repair work. Kudos for sharing this comprehensive guide – it’s now my go-to reference for achieving seamless and lasting results in concrete patching. Appreciate the expertise and guidance! 🛠️🏡

Lilly Craigen says:

Should the existing cement be wet or dry before applying patching material?

Sakrete says:

The existing concrete should be wet before applying patching material. This is called Saturated Surface Dry (SSD) and ensures that the existing concrete doesn’t pull water out of the repair material too quickly, which can lead to failure.

CndBrn_79 says:

There’s a few rules of thumb that we Mason’s “stick” by.

1. Don’t take advice from a salesman, especially when it’s there product they’re selling.

2. Surface prep is crucial. If it’s loose take it off, if it’s still there after chipping at it with your hammer than leave it alone. Just like a dentist, if it’s not broke don’t fix it. Any paint or stains will need to be removed with a grinder. Any cracks are hammer and chisel or saw the loose debris and widen the crack on each side, tapering into the crack 1/4″in or so, wire brush it or sweep it out than hit it with a hose.

3. For most repairs and or patch jobs (where you don’t want to replace) use Portland cement, builder’s sand and if doing concrete you’ll need 3/4 crush or “modified” you will want to match it up and most quick bagged create use pea gravel, which is acceptable but not recommended.

The ratio is 1:2:3:.05 or 1 = Portland, 2 = sand, 3 = aggregate 0.5 = water Most patch jobs I do I use 2 sand, 1/2Portland & 1/2 (S) mortar or (N) is fine too. Don’t add too much water, as it is what causes cement to shrink, that and not adding any aggregate or sand to the cement.

A couple of tips you can follow:
I1. f you want cement to “stick” you must WET it!
Spray down or take a sponge and wet any surface, wall or crack before going over it with cement.

2. You don’t really need a bonding agent, they never had bonding agents years ago and things are still standing, same cement. Old school bonding agent is mixing a couple of scoops of Portland and just add water mixing it into a paint like consistency or milkshake, take a paint brush (after wetting it down) and paint over the damaged area, apply your normal mix (mentioned above) in a thin “scratch” coat, then take a broom and lightly drag it over the coated area(sratching) the coat of cement. The purpose of the coat is to fill in any cracks and imperfections while the scratching is to lend the next coat something to grab to or adhere to. The next coat you can probably do the next day but to be safe 3 days is best for most applications. Before applying the 2nd coat make sure to go over it and take off and dry bits or tags then you “wet” down the area with your hose.

If you want cement to stick, you need to wet it first!

Here’s a plug for you on the net (You-Tube) “Mike Haduck” you’ll find all you’ll ever need to know a out repairs.

Good Luck! ..

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